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List of references:
Ocular manifestations of Noonan syndrome.
N B Lee, L Kelly, M Sharland,
Noonan syndrome is a genetic condition inherited in an autosomally dominant manner, characterised by congenital heart disease, short stature, abnormal facies and the somatic features of Turner's syndrome, but a normal Karyotype. The ophthalmological and orthoptic findings on 58 patients with Noonan syndrome are reported. External features were hypertelorism (74%), downward sloping palpebral apertures (38%), epicanthic folds (39%) and ptosis (48%). The orthoptic examination revealed strabismus in 48%, refractive errors in 61%, amblyopia in 33%, and nystagmus in 9% of cases. Sixty-three per cent of cases had anterior segment changes consisting of: Prominent corneal nerves (46%), anterior stromal dystrophy (4%), cataracts (8%) and panuveitis (2%). Fundal changes occurred in 20% of the study group, including optic nerve head drusen, optic disc hypoplasia, colobomas and myelinated nerves. Forty-seven per cent required non surgical treatment and a further 16% had undergone surgery for strabismus or ptosis. Only three patients had no visual defects. With such a high incidence of ophthalmic abnormalities it is clearly important that children with Noonan syndrome are screened by an ophthalmologist at an early age.
Eye (London, England) - 1992
The natural history of Noonan syndrome: a long-term follow-up study.
A C Shaw, K Kalidas, A H Crosby, S Jeffery, M A Patton,
To define better the adult phenotype and natural history of Noonan syndrome.
Archives of disease in childhood - Feb 2007
Cardiac findings in Noonan syndrome on long-term follow-up.
John L Colquitt, Jacqueline A Noonan,
Noonan syndrome (NS) is the second most common genetic syndrome associated with cardiac abnormalities, including, most notably, pulmonary stenosis (PS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Little is known about the natural history of heart disease in this unique subset of patients. We sought to contribute information on the natural history of NS by looking at how the cardiac disease progresses with time.
Congenital heart disease -