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Cockayne syndrome: review of 140 cases.
M A Nance, S A Berry,
To define diagnostic criteria for Cockayne Syndrome (CS) and to identify in detail the complications of the condition, a comprehensive review of 140 cases of CS was performed. Criteria required for the diagnosis include poor growth and neurologic abnormality; other very common manifestations include sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts, pigmentary retinopathy, cutaneous photosensitivity, and dental caries. The mean age of death in reported cases is 12 3/12 years, though a few affected individuals have lived into their late teens and twenties. Prenatal growth failure, congenital structural eye anomalies, severe neurologic dysfunction from birth, and the presence of cataracts within the first 3 years of life are predictors of severe disease and early death. In contrast with other disorders of chromosome or DNA repair, cancer has never been reported in a classical CS patient, and there appears to be no predisposition to infectious complications. The wide spectrum of symptoms and severity of the disease suggest that biochemical and genetic heterogeneity exist. CS is an uncommon but devastating genetic condition which will be better understood as the biochemical interrelationships between DNA replication and repair, and between growth, homeostasis, and oncogenesis are unraveled.
American journal of medical genetics - Jan 1992
A comprehensive description of the severity groups in Cockayne syndrome.
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare degenerative disorder with a common set of symptoms but a very wide variation in phenotype. The variation is sufficiently wide that CS patients have traditionally been described in three different severity groups. Unfortunately, there is no single source for information about the different severity groups. This problem can complicate not only diagnosis, but accurate prognosis as well. The goal of this study was to describe the phenotypic variation in CS as completely as possible. This article provides extensive descriptions of traits common to each group and their degree of severity in each group. Forty-five people with CS were surveyed and information from the published literature was used to increase the sample sizes for calculations. This study provides new information, including statistical data for each of the three severity groups (mean age at death, average head circumference, and average length or stature). The study includes cerebro-oculo-facial syndrome (COFS) as a severe form of CS, based on results of recently published genetic studies performed by other authors. This study proposes revised names for CS severity groups: severe, moderate, and mild. The groups were formerly called Type II/early onset CS, Type I/classical CS, and Type III/atypical/mild/late-onset CS, respectively. A fourth newly documented group, UV sensitivity only/adult onset, is also described. Average ages of death were calculated as 5.0 years (severe), 16.1 years (moderate), and 30.3 years (mild).
American journal of medical genetics. Part A - May 2011
Neuroimaging in Cockayne syndrome.
M Koob, V Laugel, M Durand, H Fothergill, C Dalloz, F Sauvanaud, H Dollfus, I J Namer, J-L Dietemann,
CS is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder, which is mainly characterized by neurologic and sensory impairment, cachectic dwarfism, and photosensitivity. We describe the neuroimaging features (MR imaging, ¹H-MR spectroscopy, and CT) in the various clinical subtypes of CS from a cohort of genetically and biochemically proved cases. Hypomyelination, calcifications, and brain atrophy were the main imaging features. Calcifications were typically found in the putamen and less often in the cortex and dentate nuclei. Severe progressive atrophy was seen in the supratentorial white matter, the cerebellum, the corpus callosum, and the brain stem. Patients with early-onset disease displayed more severe hypomyelination and prominent calcifications in the sulcal depth of the cerebral cortex, but atrophy was less severe in late-onset patients. On proton MR spectroscopy, lactate was detected and Cho and NAA values were decreased. These combined neuroradiologic findings can help in the differential diagnosis of CS, distinguishing it from other leukoencephalopathies and/or cerebral calcifications in childhood.
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology - Oct 2010
A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome.
Agnès Bloch-Zupan, Morgan Rousseaux, Virginie Laugel, Matthieu Schmittbuhl, Rémy Mathis, Emmanuelle Desforges, Mériam Koob, Ariane Zaloszyc, Hélène Dollfus, Vincent Laugel,
Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A - CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B - CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies.
Orphanet journal of rare diseases - Jan 2013
Uncommon nucleotide excision repair phenotypes revealed by targeted high-throughput sequencing.
Nadège Calmels, Géraldine Greff, Cathy Obringer, Nadine Kempf, Claire Gasnier, Julien Tarabeux, Marguerite Miguet, Geneviève Baujat, Didier Bessis, Patricia Bretones, Anne Cavau, Béatrice Digeon, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Bérénice Doray, François Feillet, Jesus Gardeazabal, Blanca Gener, Sophie Julia, Isabel Llano-Rivas, Artur Mazur, Caroline Michot, Florence Renaldo-Robin, Massimiliano Rossi, Pascal Sabouraud, Boris Keren, Christel Depienne, Jean Muller, Jean-Louis Mandel, Vincent Laugel,
Deficient nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity causes a variety of autosomal recessive diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) a disorder which pre-disposes to skin cancer, and the severe multisystem condition known as Cockayne syndrome (CS). In view of the clinical overlap between NER-related disorders, as well as the existence of multiple phenotypes and the numerous genes involved, we developed a new diagnostic approach based on the enrichment of 16 NER-related genes by multiplex amplification coupled with next-generation sequencing (NGS).
Orphanet journal of rare diseases - Mar 2016