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List of references:
Leigh syndrome: clinical features and biochemical and DNA abnormalities.
S Rahman, R B Blok, H H Dahl, D M Danks, D M Kirby, C W Chow, J Christodoulou, D R Thorburn,
We investigated the etiology of Leigh syndrome in 67 Australian cases from 56 pedigrees, 35 with a firm diagnosis and 32 with some atypical features. Biochemical or DNA defects were determined in both groups, ie, 80% in the tightly defined group and 41% in the "Leigh-like" group. Eleven patients had mitochondrial DNA point mutations (nucleotide [nt] 8993 T to G, nt 8993 T to C, or nt 8344 A to G) and 1 Leigh-like patient had a heteroplasmic deletion. Twenty-nine patients had enzyme defects, ie, 13 respiratory chain complex I, 9 complex IV, and 7 pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC). Complex I deficiency is more common than recognized previously. Six PDHC-deficient patients had mutations in the X-chromosomal gene encoding the E1alpha subunit of PDHC. Parental consanguinity suggested autosomal recessive inheritance in two complex IV-deficient sibships. We found no strong correlation between the clinical features and basic defects. An assumption of autosomal recessive inheritance (frequently made in the past) would have been wrong in nearly one-half (11 of 28 tightly defined and 18 of 41 total patients) of those in whom a cause was found. A specific defect must be identified if reliable genetic counseling is to be provided.
Annals of neurology - Mar 1996
Leigh syndrome: clinical and neuroimaging follow-up.
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Chi-Ren Tsai, Ching-Shiang Chi, Huei-Jane Lee, Clayton Chi-Chang Chen,
Leigh syndrome, caused by dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism, is an inherited, heterogeneous, and progressive neurodegenerative disorder of infancy and childhood. From 1983 to August 2006, 14 cases diagnosed with Leigh syndrome were studied in terms of characteristic neuroimaging findings and abnormal mitochondrial configurations under electron microscopy, as well as molecular analysis. Of the 14 cases, 11 presented clinical features before age 1 (79%). All 14 presented with variable symptoms of central nervous system involvement. The three most common symptoms were developmental delay (12/14; 86%), seizures (11/14; 79%), and altered consciousness (8/14; 57%). Extra-central nervous system manifestations were observed in 10 of the 14 cases, the most common symptoms being failure to thrive (5/14; 36%), pericardial effusion and dilated cardiomyopathy (3/14; 21%), and liver function impairment (3/14; 21%). In all 14 cases, neuroimaging revealed abnormal findings over the basal ganglion, brainstem, or both. The putamen was the most common lesion site in the basal ganglia (11/12; 92%). Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was used for follow-up in 6 cases because of changes in clinical features; in all 6 cases the imaging revealed evolution in the brain. Cranial magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 3 cases and in 2 of them revealed lactate peaks during deterioration of the disease course. The prognosis for Leigh syndrome was poor during long-term follow-up. Seven cases were early fatalities, before 1 year and 6 months of age. Follow-up cranial magnetic resonance imaging together with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cases with clinical evolution is helpful for monitoring this disease.
Pediatric neurology - Feb 2009