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COQ2 nephropathy: a newly described inherited mitochondriopathy with primary renal involvement.
Francesca Diomedi-Camassei, Silvia Di Giandomenico, Filippo M Santorelli, Gianluca Caridi, Fiorella Piemonte, Giovanni Montini, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Luisa Murer, Laura Barisoni, Anna Pastore, Andrea Onetti Muda, Maria Luisa Valente, Enrico Bertini, Francesco Emma,
Primary coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) deficiency includes a group of rare autosomal recessive disorders primarily characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Rarely, glomerular involvement has been reported. The COQ2 gene encodes the para-hydroxybenzoate-polyprenyl-transferase enzyme of the CoQ(10) synthesis pathway. We identified two patients with early-onset glomerular lesions that harbored mutations in the COQ2 gene. The first patient presented with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome at the age of 18 months as a result of collapsing glomerulopathy, with no extrarenal symptoms. The second patient presented at five days of life with oliguria, had severe extracapillary proliferation on renal biopsy, rapidly developed end-stage renal disease, and died at the age of 6 months after a course complicated by progressive epileptic encephalopathy. Ultrastructural examination of renal specimens from these cases, as well as from two previously reported patients, showed an increased number of dysmorphic mitochondria in glomerular cells. Biochemical analyses demonstrated decreased activities of respiratory chain complexes [II+III] and decreased CoQ(10) concentrations in skeletal muscle and renal cortex. In conclusion, we suggest that inherited COQ2 mutations cause a primary glomerular disease with renal lesions that vary in severity and are not necessarily associated with neurological signs. COQ2 nephropathy should be suspected when electron microscopy shows an increased number of abnormal mitochondria in podocytes and other glomerular cells.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN - Oct 2007
Infantile and pediatric quinone deficiency diseases.
Agnès Rötig, Julie Mollet, Marlène Rio, Arnold Munnich,
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a pivotal role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as it distributes electrons between the various dehydrogenases and the cytochrome segments of the respiratory chain. Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency is a rare, but possibly treatable, autosomal recessive condition with four major clinical presentations, an encephalomyopathic form, a generalized infantile variant with severe encephalopathy and renal disease, a myopathic form and an ataxic form. The diagnosis of ubiquinone deficiency is supported by respiratory chain analysis and eventually by the quantification of CoQ10 in patient tissues. We review here the infantile and pediatric quinone deficiency diseases as well as the clinical improvement after oral CoQ10 therapy. The clinical heterogeneity of ubiquinone deficiency is suggestive of a genetic heterogeneity that should be related to the large number of enzymes, and corresponding genes, involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis.
Mitochondrion - Jun 2007