Protein S deficiency

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Description from OMIM

Heterozygous protein S deficiency, like protein C deficiency (176860), is characterized by recurrent venous thrombosis. Bertina (1990) classified protein S deficiency into 3 clinical subtypes based on laboratory findings. Type I refers to deficiency of both free and total protein S as well as decreased protein S activity; type II shows normal plasma values, but decreased protein S activity; and type III shows decreased free protein S levels and activity, but normal total protein S levels. Approximately 40% of protein S circulates as a free active form, whereas the remaining 60% circulates as an inactive form bound to C4BPA (120830). Zoller et al. (1995) observed coexistence of type I and type III PROS1-deficient phenotypes within a single family and determined that the subtypes are allelic. Under normal conditions, the concentration of protein S exceeds that of C4BPA by approximately 30 to 40%. Thus, free protein S is the molar surplus of protein S over C4BPA. Mild protein S deficiency will thus present with selective deficiency of free protein S, whereas more pronounced protein S deficiency will also decrease the complexed protein S and consequently the total protein S level. These findings explained why assays for free protein S have a higher predictive value for protein S deficiency. See also autosomal recessive thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency (THPH6; 614514), which is a more severe disorder.

Prevalence of clinical parameters (%)

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List of symptoms

Symptom/sign Organ system Percent affected Pubmed id Added on(yyyy-mm-dd) Edit/add reference
Deep vein thrombosis circulatory 74 % 2952034 2012-01-12
Superficial thrombophlebitis circulatory 72 % 2952034 2012-01-12
Pulmonary embolism circulatory 38 % 2952034 2012-01-12

List of references:

Hereditary protein S deficiency: clinical manifestations.
L Engesser, A W Broekmans, E Briƫt, E J Brommer, R M Bertina,

To analyze the clinical manifestations of protein S deficiency, we evaluated 136 members of 12 families with the disorder. Seventy-one persons were found to be heterozygous for protein S deficiency, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Venous thrombotic events occurred in 39 patients (55%) and were recurrent in 77%. Most symptomatic patients had various combinations of deep venous thrombosis (74%), superficial thrombophlebitis (72%), and pulmonary embolism (38%), either in succession or simultaneously. On five occasions thrombosis was found at unusual sites, like the axillary, mesenteric, and cerebral veins. The age at the first thrombotic event ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean, 28 years), and at age 35 the probability to be still free of thrombosis was only 32%. Fifty-six percent of the thrombotic events were not preceded by a precipitating condition. In these respects protein S deficiency is similar to protein C deficiency.

Annals of internal medicine - May 1987