Antithrombin III Deficiency
Antithrombin III deficiency

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Description from OMIM

Deficiency of antithrombin III is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. Two categories of AT-III deficiency have been defined on the basis of AT-III antigen levels in the plasma of affected individuals. The majority of AT-III deficiency families belong in the type I (classic) deficiency group and have a quantitatively abnormal phenotype in which antigen and heparin cofactor levels are both reduced to about 50% of normal. The second category of AT-III deficiency has been termed type II (functional) deficiency. Affected individuals from these kindreds produce dysfunctional AT-III molecules; they have reduced heparin cofactor activity levels (about 50% of normal) but levels of AT-III antigen are often normal or nearly normal (summary by Bock and Prochownik, 1987). The 2 categories of antithrombmin III deficiency have been classified further. Type I (low functional and immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype Ia (reduced levels of normal antithrombin), and type Ib (reduced levels of antithrombin and the presence of low levels of a variant). Type II (low functional but normal immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype IIa (functional abnormalities affecting both the reactive site and the heparin-binding site of AT3); subtype IIb (functional abnormalities limited to the reactive site); and subtype IIc (functional abnormalities limited to the heparin-binding site) (summary by Lane et al., 1992).

Prevalence of clinical parameters (%)

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List of symptoms

Symptom/sign Organ system Percent affected Pubmed id Added on(yyyy-mm-dd) Edit/add reference
Deep vein thrombosis circulatory 88 % 2952034 2012-01-12
Pulmonary embolism circulatory 40 % 2952034 2012-01-12
Superficial thrombophlebitis circulatory 8 % 2952034 2012-01-12

List of references:

Hereditary protein S deficiency: clinical manifestations.
L Engesser, A W Broekmans, E Briƫt, E J Brommer, R M Bertina,

To analyze the clinical manifestations of protein S deficiency, we evaluated 136 members of 12 families with the disorder. Seventy-one persons were found to be heterozygous for protein S deficiency, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Venous thrombotic events occurred in 39 patients (55%) and were recurrent in 77%. Most symptomatic patients had various combinations of deep venous thrombosis (74%), superficial thrombophlebitis (72%), and pulmonary embolism (38%), either in succession or simultaneously. On five occasions thrombosis was found at unusual sites, like the axillary, mesenteric, and cerebral veins. The age at the first thrombotic event ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean, 28 years), and at age 35 the probability to be still free of thrombosis was only 32%. Fifty-six percent of the thrombotic events were not preceded by a precipitating condition. In these respects protein S deficiency is similar to protein C deficiency.

Annals of internal medicine - May 1987