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List of references:
The bronchopulmonary pathology of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency: findings of the Death Review Committee of the national registry for individuals with Severe Deficiency of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin.
Joseph F Tomashefski, Ronald G Crystal, Herbert P Wiedemann, Edward Mascha, James K Stoller, ,
To assess the pathological changes in the lungs and liver of 42 individuals who died while enrolled in the Registry of Individuals with Severe Deficiency of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT), all available histopathologic surgical or postmortem-derived specimens were reviewed by the pathologist member of the Death Review Committee. The underlying cause of death was emphysema in 34 patients and cirrhosis in 2 patients. Slides of lung were graded for emphysema, and liver specimens were graded for fibrosis, using respective pictorial scoring systems. Correlations between the degree of pathological abnormality and clinical features were evaluated. All lungs exhibited severe panacinar emphysema (mean emphysema score, 7.9 +/- 1.06 [standard deviation], where 10 represents the greatest severity) with a lower lobe predominance. Centriacinar emphysema was minimal. No correlation was found between the pathological severity of emphysema and pulmonary function measurements, and no significant correlation was found between the degree of emphysema and the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Mildly increased bronchial gland-to-wall ratio accompanied mild inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. There were minimal changes in small airways. Dilatation of membranous bronchioles was a frequent finding; however, bronchiectasis of larger airways was a minor feature in only 6 patients (15%). Airway morphological features did not correlate with the clinical presence of chronic bronchitis or asthma. Although the lack of correlation between liver and lung pathological changes may reflect different pathogenetic mechanisms of liver disease and lung disease, the lack of correlation between emphysema grade and lung function likely reflects the skewed sample in a series of patients with advanced lung disease.
Human pathology - Dec 2004
Prevalence and impact of bronchiectasis in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.
David G Parr, Peter G Guest, John H Reynolds, Lee J Dowson, Robert A Stockley,
alpha(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is associated with increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular emphysema, but airway disease is less well described.
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine - Dec 2007
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: evaluation of bronchiectasis with CT.
M A King, J A Stone, P T Diaz, C F Mueller, W J Becker, J E Gadek,
To assess bronchiectasis depicted with computed tomography (CT) in patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and to examine associated clinical correlates.
Radiology - Apr 1996
Liver disease in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency detected by screening of 200,000 infants.
We prosepctively studied 200,000 newborns to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. One hundred and twenty Pi Z, 48 Pi SZ, two PI Z-and one Pi S-infants were identified and followed to the age of six months. Fourteen of 120 Pi Z infants had prolonged obstructive jaundice, nine with severe clinical and laboratory evidence of liver disease. Five had only laboratory evidence of liver disease. Eight other Pi Z infants had minimal abnormalities in serum bilirubin and hepatic enzyme activity and variable hepatosplenomegaly. All 22 Pi Z infants with hepatic abnormalities, two thirds of whom were made, appeared healthy at six months of age. Ninety-eight Pi Z infants did not have clinical liver disease, but liver-function tests gave abnormal results in 44 of 84 at three months, and in 36 of 60 at six months of age. The number of small-for-gestational-age infants was greater (P less than 0.001) among those with clinical liver disease. None of the 48 Pi SZ infants had clinical liver disease, but 10 of 42 at three months and one of 22 at six months of age had abnormal liver function. The Pi Z and Pi SZ phenotypes are associated with covert or readily apparent hepatic dysfunction in the first three months of life.
The New England journal of medicine - Jun 1976